A mondegreen is the mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase, typically a standardized phrase such as a line in a poem or a lyric in a song, due to near homophony, in a way that gives it a new meaning.
It derives its name from Sylvia Wright's mishearing of the last stanza to the ballad "The Bonney Earl O'Moray:
Ye Highlands and ye Lowlands,
Oh, where hae ye been?
They hae slain the Earl O' Moray,
And Lady Mondegreen.
The actual fourth line is "And laid him on the green".
Hendiadys (pronounced /hɛnˈdaɪ.ədɨs/, a Latinized form of the Greek phrase ἓν διὰ δυοῖν, hèn dià duoîn, "one through two") is a figure of speech used for emphasis, and is defined as the substitution of a conjunction for a subordination. The basic idea is to use two words linked by a conjunction (e.g. and) to express a single, complex idea.
Examples - sound and fury (from Macbeth) versus the furious sound. The Kingdom, the power and the glory (from the Lord's Prayer) instead of a glorious, powerful kingdom
This is to be distinguished from a tautology, which is an unnecessary or unessential (and sometimes unintentional) repetition of meaning, using different and dissimilar words that effectively say the same thing.
Examples - free gift, a short summary or a new innovation.
The red poppy is the ubiquitous symbol of remembrance throughout the UK and much of the Commonwealth.Its counterpart in France is another wild flower that was found in Flanders Fields - the blue cornflower or the Bleuet de France.
Since 1933 there has also been a White Poppy sold by the Peace Pledge Union, which is seen as an alternative by anti-war activists.
Metaphysics derives its name from a quirk of librarianship and mistranslation. Aristotle's philosophical works were arranged by Andronicus of Rhodes to follow chapters dealing with physics. Meta (μετά) is Greek for 'after' or 'beyond' andmetaphysics were simply the chapters after those dealing with physics (φυσικά). Aristotle referred to the subject as 'first philosophy'.
Amidst the fervant religiosity of the Crusades a female movement emerged at the start of the 12th century. Across the Low Countries and the German lands women began to live alone, and devoted themselves to prayer and good works. They were not nuns, they did not take vows or give up property, but they devoted themselves to attending to the poor. About the beginning of the 13th century some of them grouped their cabins together to form a community, called a Beguinage. The movement would decline over the 16th century, but survived with a handful of Beguines into the 21st century.
By 2012 London's skyline will have been transformed. Since the Second World War a city of church spires dominated by the dome of St. Pauls has slowly given way to taller buildings. By 2012 both the Gherkin and Tower 42 will be topped by the Heron Tower (or the Walkie Talkie) at 202 metres tall, the Bishopsgate Tower (or the Cheese Grater) at 235m and the Pinnacle (or the Helter Skelter building) at 288m. And all of these will be dwarfed by the London Bridge Tower (or the Shard) at 310m or 72 floors. This will make the Shard the tallest bulding in the EU when it overtakes the Commerzbank Tower in Frankfurt, Germany (at 259m). It will not be the tallest building in Europe, however. That title will go to the 380m high Mercury City Tower in Moscow, to be completed next year. And by 2016 the Federation Tower East in Moscow will reach 506m.
Qatar is about the same size as Yorkshire (11,437 km2 to 11,897 km2), and has a population a little bit bigger than Merseyside (1.69m to 1.35m). It is ranked 164th in area and 148th in population amongst the world's sovereign states.
Metonyms are when a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept. Examples include Wall Street and the Square Mile for the financial centres of New York and London respectively, Foggy Bottom, Whitehall and Quai D'Orsay for foreign ministries of the USA, UK and France and Buckingham Palace for the Royal Household.