At the Second Quebec Conference in the middle of
September 1944, President Roosevelt and the US Secretary of the Treasury Henry
Morgenthau tried to persuade Winston Churchill and the British delegation on a radical
plan for post-war Germany.
The militaristic, Prussian tradition would be
destroyed once and for all, ensuring that Germany could never again threaten
the peace in Europe and the world. Part of this would be achieved by destroying
the integrity of Prussia – dividing it between Germany, Poland and Russia.
The next stage of the plan was far more ambitious. Germany
into two independent states – north and south (admittedly, not so very
different from what happened upon partition between east and west Germany);
or internationalisation of the industrial areas of the Saar, Ruhr and Upper
heavy industry in the remaining territory of Germany to be dismantled or
The aim was to return the bulk of Germany to a
pre-industrial past, or, as the memorandum of the
conference put it, “converting Germany into a country primarily
agricultural and pastoral in its character”.
The plan was never put into effect. The combination
of practicalities (it was estimated that if fully implemented it would have
resulted in the death of 25 million Germans unable to support themselves in a
purely agricultural economy) and realpolitik (a strong West Germany became a
lynchpin to the USA’s Cold War strategy).
U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull and U.S.
Secretary of War Henry Stimson firmly opposed
the policy as did Anthony Eden (at the time Foreign Secretary). In its
place came the Marshall Plan, which had almost the exact opposite intention and
result to the Morgenthau Plan and saw Germany quickly resume its position as
one of the world’s leading industrial and manufacturing nations.